(Standard English Spelling)

Whereas there is a plethora of programmes and publications about the  problem of GLOBAL WARMING, this book provides the  solution.
As time passes, the urgency, the relevance and the importance of THE SOLUTION embodied in this book, increase.

GLOBAL WARMING:
THE SCIENTIFIC GREEN SOLUTION
TO THIS WORLD CRISIS
by
KENN D'OUDNEY, ALAM(Hons) Dip. GSA

ISBN 9781902848068



FOREWORD by an Official Adviser to U.S. government Economics’ Nobel laureate professor emeritus. Endorsed by a Professor Fellow of the Royal Society; by the U.K. government Official Adviser on Environment; and by eminent academics, doctors and judges (U.S. & U.K.).
~~~~~~
Read why and how...
the global warming climate change ‘sceptics’ are deceiving the public;
their
motive and discrepancies are revealed...

THE BURIED PRIMORDIAL ATMOSPHERE.
An Essay by Kenn d’Oudney.

PART ONE.
THE KEY POINT.
Earth receives heat and light from the Sun. The Earth and planets are subject to variations in solar energy radiation and over time experience periods of warming and cooling. There is some heat generated by man’s domestic, transportation and industrial activities but nobody, that is, no educated person, scientist, environmentalist or climatologist, disputes the fact that the Earth’s surface and atmosphere’s principal source of heat is the Sun.

Not long ago, Bryson asserted correctly that Global Warming must arise from increased atmospheric presence of carbon dioxide. Recently however, he has resorted to unfounded prevarication to try to reverse his position. Now, commenting fallaciously on climate change, Bryson, Moran, and the others, miss the Key Point. A real question arises as to whether they do this from incorrect methodology (ignorance) or from a malign, venal (financial) motive to mislead people deliberately, in the service of behind-the-scenes government-corporate paymasters, to prolong the misuse of fossils and uranium as ‘fuel’.

As to whether or not Global Warming is the result of man’s use of fossils as fuel and the consequent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the ‘debate’ is a diversionary distraction from the essential fact that governments require to be pressured into abandoning altogether, and outlawing, commercial use of fossils and uranium for energy generation and transportation fuel. This is because it is a completely unnecessary, uneconomical activity.

"THE REPORT" ISBN 9781902848204 contains the unique CBEE Formulation. This latter proves that the replacement for oil, natural gas, coal and uranium is already ‘discovered’: its use as fuel causes no pollution including NO net increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide; it is production-cost-free (i.e. free), it being the by-product of a staple seed food crop; and it can be made promptly available everywhere in excess of demand by domestic and small-scale private enterprises.

The CBEE has endorsements by academics, doctors (of a variety of disciplines), judges (U.S. & U.K.), a Professor Fellow of the Royal Society, an Adviser to the U.K. government on Environment, and an Economics’ Nobel laureate former Official Adviser to the U.S. government professor emeritus of the University of Chicago. (Ref. THE REPORT webpage.)

Some say Global Warming results from emissions of ‘greenhouse gases’ from mankind’s combustion of fossils, while others seek to gainsay this. Yet, whichever position people adopt, there must always be a profound distrust of those who claim to have ‘considered objectively’ all the relevant data on combustion of fossils coal, oil and natural gas for fuel and energy-generation in relation to macro-economics and Global Warming - and yet who then avoid bringing The CBEE Solution into the ‘debate’.

This essay investigates the claims of ‘sceptics’ who deny that Global Warming is resulting from mankind’s activities and, in particular, from the combustion of fossils as ‘fuel’. We are in the happy position of referee, being detached and impartial. We have no vested interest in the outcome of arguments as to whether or not fossils are to blame for causing Global Warming, because, one way or the other, The CBEE demonstrates that there is no need for the extraction and use of uranium or the fossils as ‘fuel’ in any case whatsoever...

CARBON TAXES.

In recent years, governments have started taking advantage of the subject of Global Warming in order to levy huge new taxes ('eco' tax, 'carbon tax', etc.) to raise funds ostensibly to combat Global Warming in various ways. This is an utterly insincere postulation because, as mentioned, the technical-scientific Solution to Global Warming is ready for immediate implementation, but, for scurrilous and actually illegal reasons explained in this essay, our governments are failing the people and not adopting it. The taxes are a vicious imposition wholly without foundation.

So, bearing in mind the excessive amounts of taxation already burdening the population and the appalling amount of waste within the administration of governments, local and national, not to mention corruption, nobody in their right mind should quietly acquiesce to these irrelevant, superfluous new taxes.

The people who profit most from pretended 'scepticism' and the dissemination of disinformation about Global Warming are the oil corporations. The motive behind this is conspicuously demonstrated by the fact that the suppliers of oil, as for example ExxonMobil, who gain trillions, and acquire political hegemony from continued dependence on and use of oil, pay fallible individuals and organisations who produce shallow 'arguments', that Global Warming is 'not resulting' from increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the use of oil, coal and natural gas. In spite of the incorrectness and weakness of these pretended 'theories', they are vastly publicised by the manipulated mass media in an international effort to malindoctrinate people. These fabricated constructs are dismantled below.

People working for organisations funded by the oil corporations such as Exxon (Esso), have published papers of arrant non-science; that is to say, nonsense, claiming erroneously that carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere have 'insignificant' effects. Therefore, they say, as the world needs energy, the oil companies' continued exploitation of fossils is 'justified'. However, as a result, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will accumulate...

Justly infuriated by the insincere platitudes of government, and the scorching extra taxation, some unthinking people have latched on to these manifestly false claims that Global Warming 'is not taking place', which are the contrivances of those with the financial incentive for promoting the continued misuse of fossils and uranium as 'fuel'.

The dupes of the disinformation take up the cry that fossil combustion and consequent carbon dioxide releases have 'nothing to do with Global Warming!' While one understands their frustration, they are incorrect, and their purblind promulgating of a money-motivated perjury carries with it the potential for the most devastating of consequences.

The debate (if one can call it that) has become increasingly testy. Acrimony and self-interest have led to the proliferation of unfounded 'arguments' by the owned and controlled mass media in support of the self-interests of the financier-government-corporate Owners of the oil corporations; viz. The Money Masters. This is unconscionable because the flawed 'postulations' of the oil companies' hired fiction-writers are maleficent machinations contrived from irrelevant 'data', merely to please their paymasters.

As author of the above-mentioned well-supported CBEE Formulation, I proffer this essay. The matter portends dread implications for mankind and all life on Earth. So, I suggest readers download and freely circulate the essay both to friends and their local educational establishments; and, furthermore, to the media, local and national, to alert them to the fact that the people are in the know and they will be neither duped nor silenced at the pernicious caprice of behind-the-scenes aspiring despots and their mendacious corrupted servitors in politics and the mass media.

BIOMASS.
Plants absorb carbon from the carbon dioxide (chemical formula: CO2) in the atmosphere (photosynthesis) to form their substance, their biomass. Carbohydrates are the basis of 'biomass'; organic material, plants and organisms. Progressively buried over time, long before man inhabited this planet, oil and coal and natural gas were created from biomass which grew, died, was laid down in the ground and subsequently was covered over by more organisms and plants forming yet more biomass out of the carbon (dioxide) in the atmosphere.

The dead biomass became fossilised. Over æons of time, that is, hundreds of millions of years (not merely hundreds of thousands), the fossilised biomass became subterranean lakes of oil, pockets of gas and strata of coal.

Oil
is derived from the plant and animal life which died and was buried in mud at the bottom of early lakes and seas. This layer was subsequently overlaid and trapped by sediments. The pocket of decomposing (rotting) biological matter undergoes chemical reactions, converting it into toxic liquid oleum (oil) and poisonous gas. Oil and gas deposits are commonplace, and occur widely.

Undrained land gives rise to swampy conditions, the waters of which are low in oxygen. Consequently, when the vegetation dies it does not rot. The residual vegetable matter forms peat. When peat is overlaid with further plants, carcasses and material it is compressed into lignite; soft coal. The process continues interminably. Compacted into seams only one-tenth the thickness of the original peat, and acted upon by pressure and heat underground, hard, black bituminous coal is created.

However, at this juncture, one must bear in mind that The CBEE proves that whatever the source of subterranean hydrocarbons, there is no (good) reason whatever for their extraction.

THE EXTRACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE
FROM THE PRIMITIVE ATMOSPHERE.
Carbon-dating techniques show that from around 300 million-plus years ago, and continuously thereafter over vast periods of time, the underground coal beds, and oil and natural gas reservoirs were laid down. They are the result of biomass which was formed by extraction of atmospheric carbon (dioxide) which was at that time present in the atmosphere.

Over æons, the primordial carbon-rich atmosphere extant 300 million-years ago was progressively 'buried' as coal and oil.

THE CHANGE TO THE EARLY ATMOSPHERE.
This extraction of CO2 took place in the early atmosphere which one refers to as primordial. It is necessary to differentiate this primitive atmosphere from the subsequent atmosphere which had a relative paucity of carbon dioxide. The purification was effected by, amongst other factors, the extraction of CO2 by the plants and organisms which lived, died and became the subterranean carbon, fossilised as coal and oil.

Obviously, fluctuations in solar radiation can cause periods both of glaciation and of warming; but studies of the climate of the last several hundreds of thousands of years leading on to the era of human history (written records of approximately 5 thousand years to date), self-evidently, yield data on an atmosphere surrounding the Earth which is devoid of the vast quantity of carbon (dioxide) which was earlier buried as biomass and became fossilised. The study of ice-cores of the last multiple-thousands of years relate to low-carbon atmospheric conditions which existed a very long time AFTER the primordial hothouse atmosphere had already been transformed and rendered thoroughly tranquil.

The oldest ice cores of the last 650,000 to one million years inform us only about climate changes which occurred when there was NO primordial atmosphere, which had long since been 'buried'. The information thus gleaned is misleading and irrelevant.

From the very oldest ice cores recovered to those of recent eras, the data collected reflect information about a relatively recent period of time. The cores cover a period of less than one-third of one per cent (0.03%) of that time-scale which recedes back to 300 million-plus years ago. Those who proselytise on data drawn from the ice-cores do not compare like with like... any discerning scientist or observer must see the glaring flaw.

Moreover, the ice cores older than 5000 years or indeed 500 years, inform us only about occurrences which cannot have had recent man-made industrial causes and effects.
1850 marks the time of the worldwide spread and intensification of the carbon-combustion activities of the Industrial Revolution, and the time from which accurate records on temperature and the constituents of the atmosphere were commenced.

With predictable solar fluctuations and associated cooler periods interspersed, the fact which nobody denies is that since 1850, the atmosphere has on average, steadily warmed overall.

The 'climate sceptics' avoid the reality that, over the æons of time, that is, the hundreds of millions of years previously, the atmospheric carbon had been continuously extracted, converted into biomass and vastly accumulated underground as fossils. The stark fact which must be admitted and faced is that there are unavoidable consequences of putting back into the atmosphere all-of-a-sudden, quantities of carbon which had been safely collected underground.

What the 'climate sceptics' (and their misled petitioners, a naïve coterie for the most part unaware of and unwilling to learn the physics) say is not true, nor do they quote 'facts'. For their unfounded postulations to be right, they must first refute that FACT which they do not and cannot: that is, the empirically proven phenomenon of CO2 'greenhouse' gas heating (viz. Tyndall, spectrophotometry, thermal imaging, etc.). This indicates their stance is predetermined (pre-paid by oil corporations' funding in many instances), which avoids the recorded fact of atmospheric heating since 1850 and leads directly to diversions and distractions by cunning and outright mendacity. These sway those who are now emotionally predisposed to receive disinformation because they object to vast increases in the burden of taxation which is likely to cause a deep impoverishment of Western populations.

As with the fiction-writers working for Exxon-Mobil, these petitioners are turning a blind eye to the facts and science which they do not want to acknowledge, including those whose findings put the CO2 increase before the temperature rises. Viz...

Utrecht University
Climatic Chain Reaction Caused Runaway Greenhouse Effect 55 Million Years Ago

[QUOTE:]

In its December 20 issue, Nature reports new findings regarding a phase of rapid global greenhouse warming that took place 55 million years ago. This period of climate change is regarded as the best fossil analogue to current and future greenhouse warming.

Analogous to the Earth's current situation, greenhouse warming 55 million years ago was caused by a relatively rapid increase of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This phase, known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), was studied using sediments that accumulated 55 million years ago on the ocean floor in what is now New Jersey. The new study shows that a large proportion of the greenhouse gases was released as a result of a chain-reaction of events. Probably due to intense volcanic activity, CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere became higher and the ensuing greenhouse effect warmed the Earth. As a result, submarine methane hydrates (ice-like structures in which massive amounts of methane are stored) melted and released large amounts of methane into the atmosphere. This further amplified the magnitude of global warming, which comprised about 6°C in total.

The study is the first to show such a chain reaction during rapid warming in a 'greenhouse world'. The new research confirms that global warming can stimulate mechanisms that release massive amounts of stored carbon into the atmosphere. Current and future warming will likely see similar effects, such as methane hydrate dissociation, adding additional greenhouse gases to those resulting from fossil fuel burning.

In 2007, the same group of researchers showed (in Nature journal) that tropical algæ migrated into the Arctic Ocean during the PETM, when temperatures rose to 24°C.

Current climate models are not capable of simulating such high temperatures in the Arctic, which has repercussions for the predictions of future climate change.
http://www.uu.nl/EN/Current/Pages/Climaticchainreactioncausedrunawaygreenhouseeffect55millionyearsago.aspx
Lead author is Appy Sluijs (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and co-authors include Henk Brinkhuis, Gert-Jan Reichart (both from Utrecht University), Stefan Schouten (Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: NIOZ), Jaap Sinninghe Damsté (NIOZ, UU), James C. Zachos (University of California at Santa Cruz), and Gerald R. Dickens (Rice University).[QUOTE ENDS.]

CARBON DIOXIDE RETAINS HEAT.
The ability of the atmosphere to hold heat is directly proportional to the quantity of water vapour and heat-retaining gases (such as carbon dioxide) present in the atmosphere. Heating occurs by day and much of the heat lost, cooling occurs, at night.

The gas 'carbon dioxide' has a particular propensity to absorb and hold heat. This is why CO2 is called the 'Greenhouse [or hothouse] Gas'.

Hence, it is self-explanatory that an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide is able to retain more heat than an atmosphere which has little CO2 in it.

Much of the Sun's radiated heat which arrives on the land and sea, rebounds off the face of the globe as long-wave, dissipated energy. This heat is safely dispersed into Space. However, carbon dioxide has the capacity to retain some wavelengths of this heat - the more CO2 in the atmosphere, the hotter it becomes, this being dubbed the 'Greenhouse Effect'.

TYNDALL'S SIGNIFICANT SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS.
Not forgetting that global warming is completely unnecessary and that the renewable, non-polluting, cheap replacement for fossils is proven by the CBEE Formulation, and despite the duplicity of governments' ruse, by propaganda to reduce the standard of living of the Western populations in line with the covert agenda of the 'one-world government, new world order', to those people who are swayed by the massively-financed flush of antithetical contrivances which emotively, not scientifically, approve of the continued misuse of fossils as fuel, we say, "Hold your horses ! Look at the science."

We have read 'papers', publications and articles based on them, which fly in the face of empirically established scientific facts. There are many such incorrectnesses and downright lies fabricated at the behest of those who profit from the continued exploitation and misuse of the fossils as 'fuel'.

Like us, readers will have come across fictions that climate changes and atmospheric heating are 'not the result' of man-made activities and even that carbon dioxide is 'incapable' of heating up and changing the temperature of the atmosphere. This essay demonstrates that these stories are widely dispersed money-motivated falsehoods.

In emphatic refutation of these false assertions, empirical science does indeed demonstrate that this climatic heating process exists in our physical universe and is nothing less than the basis for explaining the global atmospheric temperature. Tyndall's definitive, replicable chemical experiments in the 1860s provided the empirical evidence which establishes that the compound gases have more absorbtive and radiative abilities than elemental gases.

Among Tyndall's most striking discoveries was his establishing that there are vast differences in the abilities of "perfectly colourless and invisible gases and vapours" to absorb and transmit radiant heat. The "elementary gases," oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, are almost transparent to radiant heat, while more complex molecules, even in very small quantities, absorb much more strongly. Greenhouse theory was proved a century and a half ago.

Tyndall's experimental apparatus, the first ratio spectrophotometer, consisted of a long tube that he filled with various gases. The ends of the tube were capped with slabs of rock salt crystal, a substance known to be highly transparent to heat radiation. A standard Leslie cube emitted radiation that traversed the tube and interacted with the gas before entering one cone of a differential thermopile. Radiation from a second Leslie cube passed through a screen and entered the other cone. The common apex of the two cones, containing the differential thermopile junction, was connected in series to a galvanometer that measured small voltage differences. The intensity of the two sources of radiation entering the two cones could be compared by measuring the deflection of the galvanometer, which is proportional to the temperature difference across the thermopile. Different gases in the tube cause varying amounts of deflection of the galvanometer needle.

The intensity of the reference source of radiation being known, the intensity of the other source and thus the absorptive power of the specific gas in the tube is calculated.

Concerning climate, Tyndall explained that changes in the amount of any of the radiatively active constituents of the atmosphere -- water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, or hydrocarbons -- could have produced "all the mutations of climate which the researches of geologists reveal. They constitute the true causes, the extent alone of the operation remaining doubtful."

Tyndall gave credit to his predecessors Saussure, Fourier, and Pouillet, among others, for the intuition that "the rays from the sun and fixed stars could reach the earth through the atmosphere more easily than the rays emanating from the earth could get back into space." The experimental empirical verification of this phenomenon, however, belonged to Tyndall.

John Tyndall's carefully executed laboratory experiments demonstrated that particular atmospheric constituents were active absorbers of heat radiation. His meteorological and climatological deductions reinforced the "hot-house theory," and suggested to Svante Arrhenius, T.C. Chamberlin and others that the Earth's atmosphere's heating is controlled by changes in the constituents of the atmosphere.

Certain gases are relatively 'transparent' to incoming white light from the sun (comprised of the visible light wavelengths combined), yet opaque to the heat-energy IR wavelengths which arrive and are invisibly radiated back from the Earth. Thermal imaging confirms that the IR is emitted from those objects upon which it alighted. When chemists say carbon dioxide and the greenhouse gases 'trap' or 'absorb' heat, the following is what they mean...

Carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, are the principle 'greenhouse' gases -- that is, they all are molecules composed of more than two component atoms bound loosely enough together to be able to vibrate with the absorption of heat. Absorbed electromagnetic radiation, sunlight, UV, micro waves, x-rays, etc., causes those complex molecules to go to a higher energy state and vibrate -- at which point, the friction causes them to heat up: the molecules eventually emit the heat as IR to other molecules around them, heating those in turn. So, whatever the radiation, in toto, it causes atmospheric IR heating. (The other major components of the atmosphere, nitrogen and oxygen, are two-atom molecules too tightly bound together to vibrate; they do not 'absorb' heat and do not contribute to the greenhouse effect.)

Eventually, the vibrating molecule emits the radiation, which will generally be absorbed by another greenhouse gas molecule within its immediate proximity. This absorption-emission-absorption cycle keeps the heat near the Earth's surface, effectively insulating the planet from the coldness of space. So, these specific molecules, and the process, are essential to life on Earth, and are responsible for the fact that the Earth enjoys temperatures suitable for our biosphere.

Tyndall's experiments and empirical science demonstrate that this climatic heating process must take place -- it is nothing less than the basis for explaining the existing global atmospheric temperature. Without it, the world's average atmospheric temperature would be many degrees below zero at all times. In other words, we rely on the 'greenhouse' gases in the atmosphere for the storage of warmth. It is the sudden man-induced increase in quantity of CO2 which has dangerous implications.

The danger is implicit in those of mankind's activities which give rise to exponential increases in the atmospheric volume of CO2, because the ability of the atmosphere to retain heat is thereby augmented with inevitable concomitant results. The greater the quantity of CO2, the more potential there is for heat to be retained by CO2. Two rooms full of carbon dioxide have twice as much potential to hold heat as one. Likewise with the atmosphere, if the misuse of fossils as 'fuel' keeps increasing the quantity of CO2 present.

The warmer the atmosphere, the more water it can hold as vapour. The reason CO2 is emphasised is because CO2 is that greenhouse gas which is being added (for no good reason; ref. the CBEE) to the atmosphere in large quantities by mankind's fossil-combusting activities (see Statistiken Bundesregierung Deutschland). Such heating increase as is brought about by the CO2 increase, then enables the atmosphere to hold more water vapour, thus causing an ever-increasing ascending vicious spiral.

A given molecule can emit the IR and subsequently take on a lower amount of IR, but in terms of atmospheric heating, even if it subsequently absorbed a lower dose of IR, when the molecule previously emitted the higher IR, this IR was absorbed by another molecule in its vicinity. The heat is still present and held. (The heat is only dissipated when it is finally released outwards from the very upper edge of the atmosphere to space, to which point it may take forever to arrive and yet still be emitted downwards.) Starting from ground level, any upwards IR emission passes into the other greenhouse gases around and above. This essentially is the greenhouse effect Tyndall described as "a tendency to accumulate heat at the surface of the planet."

While ‘trapping’ may not be the best vocabulary for expressing the effect of air being heated by IR, the experiments by Tyndall and others demonstrate precisely and conclusively that air containing carbon dioxide gas receiving heat (IR) gets warmed up within greenhouses -- Surprise! Surprise! -- and the atmosphere.See J.R. Fleming on Tyndall in Historical Perspectives on Climate Change (New York and Oxford University Presses, 1998).

The falsehoods to which we refer represent the (limited) cunning and abject mendacity utilised by those perverse non-scientists employed at ‘think-tanks’ funded by Exxon-Esso and other oil corporations to fabricate their many ways of trying, but failing, to ‘refute’ the dangers inherent in continued misuse of the fossils as ‘fuel’.

HEAT IS THE GENERATOR.
Heat is the generator by which climate patterns are engendered. We know from the presence of the large-scale subterranean deposits of coal and oil themselves, which were formed by photosynthesis from the carbon (dioxide) in the primordial atmosphere, that the Earth’s ancient atmosphere was abundantly filled with CO2: it was swelteringly hot and humid.

Until the planet was clad by the miracle of living, reproducing plants which extracted significant quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the amount of heat-retaining ‘greenhouse’ gas present at that time ensured that the Earth’s early atmosphere was storm-filled and extremely violent.

The primordial seas and waters became rich in blue-greens, algæ, plankton and early life. The fossil record shows that much of the land was covered with thriving vegetation, enormous, rapidly-growing plants, trees and ferns; and sustained primitive animal life forms. Tumultuous convection currents (of rising air), subsequent cooling, condensation, precipitation and heavy rainfall gave rise to dense ‘rain-forest’ of the early vegetation, spreading across continental land masses wherever the fossils are now to be found.

Notwithstanding fluctuations in atmospheric heat caused by intermittent variable solar activity, the constant extraction of carbon from the atmosphere by the aforedescribed process, progressively reduced the atmosphere’s capacity to retain heat. This eventually ‘buried’ the primordial carbon-rich atmosphere to produce the atmosphere and climate which exist.

In spite of moments of localised turbulence, such as hurricanes, today the world enjoys a generally placid environment and climate by comparison with that which was engendered by the torrid world atmosphere of three hundred million years ago.

DISINTERRING THE PRIMORDIAL CLIMATE,
AND THEN CREATING A MORE FIERCE ONE.
The sheer quantity of carbon dioxide taken out of the carbon-filled early atmosphere of hundreds of millions of years ago and subsequently, is witnessed by the huge fossil carbon-reserves of coal, peat, oil and natural gas which were laid down in the Earth. To extract this fossilised material and combust it would return the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

To extract and combust any significant quantities of the fossils in a short space of time, for example, a few hundred years, would do far more than reproduce the violent primordial atmosphere and climate... It would create conditions incomparably fiercer, because the release in this given short period, of the carbon which was accumulated over hundreds of millions of years, would result in an atmosphere containing a much greater concentration of CO2 than has existed at any previous time on Earth during the last 300 million years.

In consideration of this last fact and those which follow, the currently recorded Global Warming is dangerously exacerbated by mankind’s continuing consumption of the fossils.

Thus far, since the onset of the industrial revolution accompanied by exponential increases in world population requiring great energy-generation and supply, sufficient quantities of the fossils have been consumed to have produced serious changes in the present-day atmosphere, with deleterious results to climatic stability and raised temperatures. To continue the misuse of fossils as ‘fuel’ would be an act of the gravest folly which invites the direst consequences - and especially so, because the pollution-free, renewable, cheap, immediate replacement for exorbitantly expensive fossils and uranium already exists; viz. the CBEE Formulation.

A single small power station’s annual fossil combustion to generate energy for only 4,000 households (at a lower average consumption rate than the U.S.) releases pollutants, as follows:

88 tons of sulphur dioxide;66 tons of nitrous oxide;10 tons of flying ash; and13,750 tons (thirteen thousand, seven hundred and fifty tons) of carbon dioxide.Statistiken; Bundesregierung Deutschland.

Do some simple calculations yourself...

Add to the above the fossil combustion to generate energy for the hundreds of millions of households the world over.Add to this, coal and oil-fired power stations’ combustion of fossils in the worldwide generation of electricity for service and manufacturing industrial use.Add to that the emissions from all sea, air and road transport.

Combustion of fossils as ‘fuel’ accounts for not less than 75-80 per cent of the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (IPCC Findings of Fact).

Since 1850, at which time accurate records were commenced, CO2 has increased in the atmosphere from 265 parts per million (ppm) to 378 ppm, to date. Emitted in an historically short period, or, relative to geological time-scales, in the blink of an eye, this represents a colossal 42 per cent increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Whatever the fluctuations in releases of solar energy, the constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere now have been radically altered with the massive augmentation of carbon dioxide given off by the misuse of fossils as ‘fuel’. The atmosphere now inevitably retains more heat than it otherwise would. Its temperature continues to rise because of the sudden accumulation of pollutant CO2 gas in the atmosphere. Hence, whatever the increases in solar activity, the current planetary atmospheric temperature increase recorded, i.e., Global Warming Climate Change, embodies a man-made contribution, not a natural, phenomenon.

Even without increases in solar activity, in the absence of responsible intervention to implement the well-established The CBEE Formulation to replace fossils and uranium, for the rest of this century and the foreseeable future, the average global temperature and its damaging outcomes will continue to be exacerbated.

Whereas the fossils left undergound uncombusted cannot retain the infra-red radiation and cause Global Warming, when they are misused as ‘fuel’ they release the vast amounts of their long-stored concentrations of carbon, as carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere. This CO2, which would otherwise be safely left underground, now absorbs heat, inexorably raising the atmospheric temperature.
Ref. Details given herein on Global Warming are confirmed by the impartial specialist and encyclopædic works.

Australia’s National Tidal Facility estimates an annual Pacific sea level rise of 8.2mm per year over the past seven years to 2009, a rate which, if not stopped, will within a generation produce numerous catastrophic inundations and cause much chaos over the longer term.

UNFOUNDED FICTIONS (F).
It is worth glancing at some of the ludicrous objections to the straightforward science which asserts Global Warming. In addition to the irrelevant conjectures such as those based on ice cores (mentioned above), the mass and ‘educational’ media, and others, have managed to misinform and confuse a great many people by gravely ‘reporting’ utter nonsense as if it were to be taken seriously.

(F1) "Wells closed [considered pumped out] in Alaska [and elsewhere] in the early 1900s are now full again. So how can oil be a fuel derived from biomass when an empty well becomes full again ?"
(F2) "Oil must be a renewable resource regenerated by processes of the subterranean molten magma."
(F3) "How could fossils possibly end up 3 kms. under the earth ?"
(F4) "Global Warming has ‘stopped’ and ‘cannot’ be taking place because cooler seasonal readings have been recorded in recent years in various locations including Western Europe and North America."
(F5) "How could fossils account for a resource of 85 million barrels per day ?"

REFUTATION (R).
R1. No mystery here: The closely-placed positions of ‘nodding donkeys’ (pumps) above ground in many oil-producing locations demonstrate the proximity with which the underground natural reservoirs are frequently located. Oil always seeks to escape through the point of least resistance and dry wells are sometimes refilled by seepage through seams from neighbouring reservoirs. Normally, however, the nearby well requires to be accessed by drilling.

R2.
THE BIOLOGIC ORIGIN OF OIL AND COAL. The science of the origin of oil and coal is not in genuine dispute.

It was in the early part of the Nineteenth Century, long before The Science of Organic Chemistry and then the latterday field of Biochemistry were developed and before the chemistry of petroleum was known, that the idea for an ‘abiotic’ origin of oil was proposed. Without the intellectual framework of organic and biological chemistry, abiologic proposals were inevitable.

Complex organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and other elements found in oil, bitumen, oil-bearing rock and sediments show NO CHANGE in structure from their parent organic molecules in living organisms. These are complex molecules derived from formerly living organisms. The compounds are analysed by the recent technologies of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, not previously available. Petroleum geologists and chemists maintain that the presence of these organic compounds in ALL samples of petroleum to date, confirms the biological origin of petroleum.

With coal likewise, organic chemistry dictates their common biomass origin. Incidentally, the sometimes seen ‘dinosaur’ idea is a mere distraction. Animals comprise only a small part of the biomass, which in any case was already being laid down æons before the dinosaurs even evolved.

It has been profitable to the cause of the undemocratic hegemony and fraudulently-obtained wealth (see THE REPORT ISBN 9781902848211) of those few financier-government-corporate Owners of the subterranean minerals to resuscitate the disproven old ideas on the origins of oil, in order to prolong global use. It is in the corporations’ owners’ vested interests to publicise the ‘abiotic’ idea of an endlessly self-renewing source of oil for them to extract (at great cost, maintaining high prices) and supply for the world populations’ domestic and industrial needs. It encourages use and makes the search for an alternative unnecessary. Note that it is the same people who maintain the actually dangerous fiction that CO2 increases in the atmosphere count for nothing.

It is within a scientifically primitive (or duplicitous) environment that fictions on the ‘abiotic origin’ of petroleum originate; and by the dupe at the behest of the money-motivated, that it is today being promulgated.

By circulating such writings, people are prolonging the corporations’ MONOPOLY: they are denying the providential bounty of URFEP to the People: the Universal Re-democratisation of Fuel Energy Production which is made available through The CBEE Formulation.

Instead of spreading a message of hope and the Solution which promises great benefits to mankind -- the end to famine and poverty -- they destructively obscure the knowledge about The CBEE: the cheap, clean replacement of fossils and uranium. They do not realise that while they quibble about origins of oil and whether there is global warming, they are promoting famine, poverty and actively serving the inhumanity of the Money Masters.

Under certain laboratory conditions, it is possible, by applying heat and pressure to carbon, hydrogen + oxygen (water), to manufacture vapours of hydrocarbons and to make artificial ‘industrial’ diamonds, etc., but as to the fabrications claiming oil is "renewable" and not fossil material but "created by processes of the magma," consider that hydrocarbon gas or liquid coming up from, or near enough to be affected by, magma and the molten mantle, would already have been combusted. The hardest natural substance known, diamond (carbonado, black diamond), is formed from carbon under such heat and pressure (not inflammable liquid oil).

Carbon has two stable isotopes: carbon-12, which makes up 98.89 per cent of carbon; and carbon-13 which only accounts for 1.11 per cent. The oil and coal which are extracted and supplied to consumers, are formed from carbon-12 which derives only from biomass, i.e., formerly living plants, animal organisms and micro-organisms. As noted, coal and peat form in swampy low-oxygen conditions and therefore do not undergo chemical decomposition as does oil. In the case of the fossilised plants and organisms from which coal and peat derive, these fossils are directly visible in the material itself. Beautiful examples are on display in museums of natural history.

R3.
Plate tectonics are structural changes in the earth’s crust. These changes are caused by the downthrust or upheaval of continental and crustal plates. The oceans are cradled above crusts, below which the earth is molten. The land masses recognisable on today’s map are in fact cooled down crusts floating on the molten magma of the mantle below. They are in a state of constant motion.

Europe, for example, is on average 2.5 centimetres further away from North America every year. The rate of spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge averages about 25 kms. in a million years. This rate may seem ‘slow’ to the ephemeral human whose life lasts but a fleeting moment by comparison, but the process has been going on for many millions of years and it results in plate movements of thousands of kilometers.

Over the past 100 to 200 million years, the spreading of the seafloor has caused the Atlantic Ocean to grow from a tiny inlet of water between the continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas into the expansive ocean which exists today.

Earth movements long ago pushed carbon deposits deep underground.
To form a picture, consider that the Himalayas (8.8 kms. high) are formed by crustal activity, and in this case the earth is moved not down, but up. Most of this ‘growth’ occurred only during the past 10 million years. The collision of India into Asia 50 million years ago caused the Eurasian Plate to crumple up and override the Indian Plate, which is disappearing deep underground. After the collision, the continuous convergence of the two plates over millions of years pushed the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau up to their present height.

For each part of the crust uplifted there are those which have been forced down. For example, part of the great eastern Pacific plate is being subducted and crushed under the American continental plate and is disappearing under California, Oregon, Washington State and Canada, giving rise to the intermittent quakes and shocks.

R4.
Great ocean currents in both hemispheres circulate warm equatorial water towards the poles (e.g., the Gulf Stream), normally keeping continents and islands at the higher and lower latitudes of the Earth relatively warm. However, from Global Warming’s melting of the Arctic and Antarctic Polar Icecaps, significant quantities of extremely cold meltwater pushing southwards from the Arctic and northwards from the Antarctic, are preventing the warm ocean currents from reaching as far from the equator as they otherwise usually do.

Depending on the salinity, frozen sea salt-water melts at several degrees below 0° Centigrade. Hence, predicted in the mid-1990s as a paradoxical direct result of Global Warming, generally cooler temperatures are being recorded in numerous locations, while the global average over time continues to rise.

Global Warming’s climatic destabilisation gives rise to localised cooler periods which can be interspersed with intrusive fronts of warmer, moist air expanding from the tropical and sub-tropical regions, generating storms.

R5.
With regard to the amount of fossils: Let us first bear in mind that the palaeobiological history of life on Earth is generally deduced from carbon-dating and the fossil record as having started circa 3.5 billion years ago.

Secondly, wide-ranging land masses, as, for example, those comprised of Northern France, much of England, stretching across Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Baltic, or entire mountain ranges, such as the Dolomites, are made of solid calcium carbonate, the fossilised bodies of uncountably numerous micro-organisms deposited over geological time-scales on a seabed, compacted by pressure from above, and then uplifted over æons by plate tectonics. (Under different circumstances this particular fossilised carbon could have been formed instead into oil or coal.)

Chalk terrains demonstrate the great extent to which life-forms on our earth reproduced themselves. There was prolific biological activity for such a protracted period as to have created whole land masses. This demonstrates the sheer quantity of the various accumulations of carbon matter in the crust of the earth. The "85 million barrels a day" is only a trifling part of the subterranean resources of oil (and coal) around the globe; but oil and coal are nevertheless ultimately finite.

The many money-motivated fictions funded by Exxon and the others are actually farcical; but they do confuse people, misleading with the intention of serving the oil corporations’ vested interests. Even politicians are (apparently) bamboozled by them until they are revealed for the non-science that they are.

By the propaganda of their specially funded fiction-writers and others on the bandwagon, the corporations now even propose that oil could be "an underground self-renewing resource" and... "therefore, we do not need to limit its use..." The oil companies want people to stop looking for the alternatives... and to continue to use their foul, polluting substances.

Above all, the private owners of the world bank, the behind-the-scenes government-controlling owners of the oil corporations, do not want people to discuss the
real replacement, The CBEE, which would put them out of business overnight. Backed by academics, experts in economics and the environmental sciences, the CBEE Formulation establishes that the fossils and uranium should be left underground; that the world resource to clean and very cheap fuel-energy is immediately available. The CBEE takes the means of fuel-energy production out of the stranglehold of financier-corporate-government control and places it where it belongs: back into the hands of the people: the Universal Re-democratisation of Fuel-Energy Production. (The exposition accessed from the URL below shows how.)

PART TWO.
MONEY-MOTIVATED OBSCURATION OF THE FACT:
CURRENT GLOBAL WARMING IS A MAN-MADE PHENOMENON.
What is the motive behind denial ? -- who benefits from the employing of cunning ‘sceptics’ to produce artifices which make falsehood look like truth and ignorance appear like knowledge ?

Owners of the implacable oil and petro-chemical corporations are financially linked with the banks and finance houses, the multi-national and national pharmaceutical manufacturers, the armaments industry, the alcohol and caffeinated beverage businesses, tobacco cultivators and traders, and other manufacturing, agricultural, retail and service companies, newspapers, publishing, press, radio, television and advertising companies.

The oil companies now are huge, highly diversified conglomerates with heavily financed effective political lobbies, controlling the deliberations of bureaucrats, and deciding for those politicians who comprise our Western ‘governments’. In opposition to capitalistic free enterprise and equal opportunity for all, instead, covert monopoly and felonious protectionism are at work. The money-motivations of a ruthless criminal Owning-clique find expression in a de facto coup d’état: plutocracy displaces democracy.

The common law and Constitutional legitimacy are fractured by the modern political establishment and the modus operandi of the courts (judges), the politicians’ beholden servitors.

Oil companies operate within a crooked framework conspired to protect their Owners’ hegemony and profits, the ill-gotten gains of a lawless racketeering minority. The corrupt system is politically machinated by subservient politicians in the financial interests of a numerically miniscule fraction of the population. This is at the expense, and to the destruction of the prosperity, health, freedom and rights, of all of the rest of the People.

Consider but one of the many organisations who finance disinformation trying to dismiss Global Warming as any responsibility of theirs, whose malindoctrination is spread by the owned and controlled media throughout the Americas, Britain and Europe: namely the oil giant ExxonMobil, whose accounts reveal that, amongst its other pernicious activities, it pays to fund individuals and groups in North America and Europe who produce climate-change "sceptic theories" to lobby for their monetary interest in the continued worldwide misuse of subterranean fossils as ‘fuel’.
Information supplied by the Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO).

ExxonMobil has consistently prevailed on successive U.S. governments to abstain from combating climate change. To the certain end result of world tumult and disorder, danger, damage and death of people, wildlife and livestock, and ultimately populations, these unconscionable villains and their political puppets produce crass, unscientific and emotive fictions which are readily promulgated by unscrupulous individuals, unthinking dupes and the complicit media.

The ExxonMobil Worldwide ‘Giving’ Report is published annually by their headquarters in the U.S. It shows that the company funded 39 such groups; and allotted not less than a (tax-deductible) $2.9 million of its resources (derived from customers) to such groups who produce misleading fictions and non-science. The ‘Competitive Enterprise Institute’, a small group based in Washington which aggressively dismisses the need to act against Global Warming, was the biggest U.S. beneficiary of ExxonMobil funding last year.

With money (derived from the paying customers), the owners of ExxonMobil desire to create the false impression that ‘scepticism’ about climate change comes from ‘respectable’ sources.

When you hear or read that Global Warming is ‘not’ the result of the misuse of fossils as ‘fuel’, be warned that it is a lie; and be informed whence this falsehood derives. Principles are compromised. Truth, the universal natural law is fractured; and ultimately, innocent people in their millions become victims of government injustice, corporate avarice and Global Warming.

DOES GLOBAL WARMING POSE A THREAT TO PEOPLE?
THE HIDDEN COSTS OF PRESENT-DAY ENERGY PRODUCTION.
Preoccupied as people are with the personally absorbing detail of daily living, it is easy to lose touch with much of the basic reality upon which our human civilisation and very existence depend. It is of primary importance that people understand why fossilised hydro-carbons, coal, oil and natural gas, should not be regarded, nor any longer be allowed to be misused, as ‘fuel’.

Heat
is the generator by which our weather systems are activated. In addition toraised sea levels (from polar ice-cap and glacial meltdown) the danger and damage to life, property, agricultural production and civilised order, arise from:

floods
; temperature increase enables prevailing currents of air to carry more moisture, precipitating as increased rainfall upon the land. Warming of only a small fraction of 1°C can result in many more inches of rain - trillions of tons of catastrophic floodwater; viz. uncharacteristic recent floods in England, Wales, France, Germany, Vietnam, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, Florida, Northern Italy, New South Wales, Cambodia, South Africa, Siberia, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan and Mozambique; and from:

turbulent airstreams, storms, gales, hurricanes, cyclones and tornadoes
, viz. increasing intensity and frequency of life-destroying, devastating hurricanes in numerous parts of the world.

Multiple-thousands of recent human fatalities, destruction of animals, crops and property are attributable to Global Warming’s floods, hurricanes and drought. Based on death and destruction already perpetrated, Global Warming represents no less a threat to the people of the world than World War. With mortalities and widespread havoc knowingly wreaked for the hegemony and profit of a handful of individuals, owners of banks and corporations, and for government revenues, these perpetrators are accountable and indictable for the highest of crimes. What is more, there is no end in sight to the attack upon the world’s population; and progressive worsening of the lethality is the future prospect.

The CBEE Solution effectively makes fuel-energy generation feasible at the domestic and small-scale private enterprise level, and would quickly take much if not most fuel-energy production away from the present government-corporate monopoly stranglehold.

Increase in atmospheric temperature is nonchalantly dismissed as "normal intermittent solar fluctuations." These conspiratorial statements are not backed by the indications, nor by impartial scientific studies. This verbal shrug by representatives of the coal and oil interests, is the money-motivated, predictable attempted obscuration of the fact that government and corporate Owners of coal and oil, would prefer the industrial world, ruinously and homicidally, to continue to consume their fossil material.

‘Fluctuations’ do not satisfy these data. While the incaution of foolishness is to be regretted, the dissemination of falsehoods for short-term monetary gain and political hegemony is to be condemned. Serious change in composition of the atmosphere, notably the CO2 increase, renders Global Warming to have resulted from the misuse of fossils as ‘fuel’. Unless immediate responsible legislation emplaces The CBEE Solution, the indications are that Global Warming will continue.

When the danger from combustion of fossils remained unrealised, their misuse as ‘fuel’ was purblind and unfortunate. However, since the danger was recognised, and since the scientific CBEE Solution was published with the ardent endorsement and support of government advisers, economists, doctors, academics and judges, and has circulated at the highest government levels, the protracted misuse of fossils as ‘fuel’ by the failure of governments to implement the replacement CBEE Solution has been the wilful premeditated committing of a political act in which large-scale homicide is implicated; an act for which individuals of government and corporate institutions are accountable.

The CBEE Formulation shows that the threat and damage from Global Warming by emissions from the combustion of fossils, are totally needless and inexcusable. The unprecedented (new) CBEE Formulation in THE REPORT ISBN 9781902848211 proves not only that the energy alternative to nuclear power, natural gas and the fossils (oil and coal) already exists, but also that it is non-polluting, and that it comprises the cheapest fuel-energy known to mankind. The CBEE makes possible the prompt production of fuel everywhere to domestic and small-scale private enterprises.

See The CBEE Formulation is endorsed by academics, doctors (of a variety of disciplines), judges (U.S. & U.K.), a Professor Fellow of the Royal Society, an Adviser on Environment to the U.K. government, and an Economics’ Nobel laureate former Adviser to the U.S. government, professor emeritus of the University of Chicago. (Webpage info is accessed from the URL given below.)

The Owning-clique of financial and government-corporate interests would not be served by relinquishing their control over politicians and monopoly-control over fuel-energy production to the ordinary people en masse. Consequently, because politicians worldwide are so corrupted and suborned to the control of their Money Masters, they refuse to implement The CBEE safe solution, although not to do so inculpates them for homicide and puts all the people of the world at risk.

CULPRITS.
Politicians remain recalcitrant: none are so blind as those who will not see.

Magnates of banks, corporations and governments comprised of the executive, the legislature and the judiciary, amongst whom some persons are more culpable than others, succumb to an ulterior corrupt money-motive to wage this World War of Global Warming upon the people of the planet, by choice. Global Warming is a catastrophe for which politicians have made themselves accountable. Allowing continued build-up of atmospheric CO2 by emissions from consumption of coal and oil is the indictable act of: Crime Against Humanity; Crime Against Peace; Betrayal; Criminal Dereliction; and Conspiracy (Racket; U.S.). By not adopting The CBEE Solution, politicians endanger All.

NO
further increases in atmospheric CO2 from fuel-combustion are acceptable: human lives continue to be taken and the world population remains in peril.

The Kyoto Treaty and similar conventions with proposed ‘reductions’ in CO2 emissions, are destructive elaborate diversions.

All misuse of fossils as ‘fuel’ must be stopped at once.
In delaying implementation of The CBEE Solution, governments become culpable for homicide. Individuals who comprise these governments represent legitimate targets of public wrath and just retribution. Global CO2 emissions are attributed as follows:

Russia.....5%
India.....7%
EU.....10%
North America.....14%
China.....28%

There is now no serious dissent to the postulation that it is as certain as it is possible to be that continued misuse of fossils as ‘fuels’, of coal, natural gas and oil, threatens great and continually increasing detriment to the planetary environment. Only the degree of the damage and the speed at which it can occur are in debate. Taking the most conservative consensual estimate of 2½°C average Global Warming with attendant Mean Sea Level increase of approximately 12 inches in 30 years and 40 inches by 2100, large areas of land, productive coastal and low-lying plains, scores of major cities and densely populated regions will be invaded by the sea.

Unless the SOLUTION is implemented forthwith, to give but a very few examples, significant portions of Holland, Germany, Florida, the Great Chinese River Basin, Bangladesh, East Anglia, New York, London, Tokyo and Venice, can expect inundative obliteration within decades.

THE REPORT ISBN 9781902848211 is an evidentially based thesis and indictment of government which contains The CBEE Solution. The CBEE comprises one of its Seven Parts (or chapters). THE REPORT shows that the threat, death and damage from Global Warming by emissions from the combustion of fossils, are needless and inexcusable.

For endorsements of the CBEE Formulation by academics, doctors and judges (U.S. & U.K.), diagram, USDA photo and some further information, click here:
http://www.democracydefined.org/1report.htm#the_cbee
http://www.democracydefined.org/1report.htm

The SCIENTIFIC SOLUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING CLIMATE CHANGE in contexts of:
AGRICULTURE (FOOD)/ ECOLOGY/ ECONOMICS &FUEL TECHNOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT/GENERAL KNOWLEDGE/ LAW/ POLITICS.

This book contains what every responsible judge, parent, teacher and teenager should know.
~




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This publication is currently unavailable. However, the © CBEE solution toGlobal Warming has also been published in full inTHE REPORT ISBN 9781902848211,which is endorsed byan Official Adviser to the U.S. governmentEconomics' Nobel laureate professor emeritus;and by a Professor Fellow of the Royal Society;by a U.K. government Official Adviser on Environment;and by academics, doctors and judges -click here to obtain http://www.democracydefined.org/1report.htm
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